FAQ Overview

Civil Engineer & Architecture

Please compare Architecture VS Civil Engineer tasks in general?

Architecture and Civil Engineer are both vast fields with many specializations and career paths.

Both the Architect and Civil Engineer take the role of designing structures that relates with human life and activities.
The Architects designs and develop shelters for human to live in. While the Civil Engineer designs and develops facilities for making human activities much more convenient.

In some cases the Civil Engineer comes in the assisting role of the Architect. Like the case of building construction where an Architect would be the mastermind of the project and the Civil engineer in this case the Structural Engineer would assist the Architect to ensure safety of the inhabitants of the constructed building.

In other cases the Civil Engineer is independent and becomes the mastermind of the whole project.

Architectural designing is done through a process of collecting information from the owner of the project and create spaces and ensure that those spaces are functional, aesthetically pleasing and comfortable to live in. While the Engineer designs by taking existing information and perform mathematical calculations to ensure human safety.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 21:25


What's the meaning of temperature & heat? What's the difference between them?

These are some youtube videos that explains it in a nutshell:

Author: kitaniboy
Last update: 2020-04-06 16:36

What is the difference between math and physics?

They are NOT different! Someone might say that “Physics is a branch of Math that studies how this world works”. And someone else might say that “Physics is a science that deals with matter and energy and their interactions, and Mathematics is the language of physics”. Or as expressed by Galileo Galilei: "The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics". And since physicists study nature they need to understand math.

On the other hand, there is no generally accepted definition for mathematics. Mathematicians seek patterns and use logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. A great many professional mathematicians take no interest in a definition of mathematics or consider it undefinable. There is not even consensus on whether mathematics is an art or a science. Some just say, "Mathematics is what mathematicians do." 

And it is worth mentioning that a lot of mathematicians have contributed to physics and a lot of physicists have contributed to math.

Sir Isaac Newton for example was an English mathematician & a physicist. His book was titled “Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica” or Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.

Carl Friedrich Gauss was a German mathematician & a physicist. Leonhard Euler was a Swiss mathematician & a physicist. and the list goes on...

Maybe from a narrow preceptive someone might see these fields of knowledge as unrelated, but as you learn more and look at the big picture you will see the deep connections between these subjects.

Lastly, here are two “maps” of these huge subjects created by Dominic Walliman.

The Map of Physics: https://flic.kr/p/Pcj581

The Map of Mathematics: https://flic.kr/p/Ra6UW5

Author: kitaniboy
Last update: 2020-05-02 15:47

Information Technology » Hardware

What is the most expensive laptop? Why is it expensive?

The normal range of laptops in price are between 300$ to 2800$; depends on the specs, material and the brand.

Apple for example offers Macbook Pro at the moment for 2799$, which comes with high end specs. 

Intel 6 Core Processor
- 16GB Memory DDR4
- 512GB Solid State Drive
- 15" screen size Retina Display
- 4GB Graphic Card Radeon Pro with a touchbar

This laptop is compatible for Office work, Designing, Production, Gaming and Programming. It also support both Operating System Windows and Mac OS.

Here is the link if you want to buy it.

Here is the extreme and most expensive laptop, from Acer Company, it was made for gaming purpose to support the latest games with a curve screen with massive storage support. They call it Predator 21X.

Why is it so expensive?

CPU: 2.90 GHz Intel Core i7-7820HK 
Graphics: 2 x Nvidia GTX 1080 (8GB GDDR5, SLI)
RAM: 64GB DDR4 (2400Hz)
Screen: 21-inch, FHD+ (2,560 x 1,080) IPS LED
Storage: 1TB HDD (SATA 3), 1TB SSD (2 x PCIe 512GB RAID 0)
Connectivity: Gigabit LAN, 802.11ac Wi-Fi
Camera: Built-in webcam
Weight: 8.5 kg

The specs are extremely high and honestly, you will never use all these specs; kind of like having a lamborghini which you hardly reach 160KM/H

Published by Dave Lee

Author: Anonymous
Last update: 2020-04-06 21:33

What is Quantum Computer? The next Generation of Computers




Author: Seeker, Kurzgesagt
Last update: 2020-04-06 21:34

What is HDCP 2.2 in HDMI Cable?

There are few things you need to understand before understanding what HDCP stand for and what does.
1. After a long evalution on developing Video resolution from 480p tp 2160p or 4K.

It started with SD or 480p, which stands for Standard Definition.
720p or HD which stands for High Definition.
1080p or Full HD [Full High Definition].
UHD or 4K or 2160p [Ultra High Definition]
Now to be able to display 4K resolution you need to meet the requirements.
1. 4K Television
2. 4K Player [Blueray, Receivers, Single Board Computers]
3. High Quality HDMI Cable.
Lately they came up with HDCP 2.2 it is a latest evolution of copy protection between the player and the TV; which protect any content to be recorded between the player and the TV. It stand for High Bandwidth Digital Content Protection.
This video below explain in detail what I mentioned above:


Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 21:29

Information Technology » Software

What is a Blockchain? What are their usage and benefits? Why are they so special?

This is a wonderful explanation of blockchain and how they work. A video representing Blockchain, when it was founded, how it works, what is unique about blockchain, why someone should learn about this knowledge:

Author: cigionline.org
Last update: 2020-04-06 21:38

Civil Engineer & Architecture » Architecture

What is the difference between an Architect and an Architectural Engineer?

The field of Architecture is a broad field. In it we find "Architectural Engineering". The Architect is a mastermind of everything in any building project. He design the building from nothing to something. He designs all the general arrangements of the internal design and all the systems inside the building. But since the project can be quite large and the Architect can overwhelmed and may omits some of the small details.

Specialized teams from the same discipline come to cover those small roles. The Architectural Engineer is among the specialized team who will assist the Architect to fine detail all the mechanical systems inside the building.

The Architectural Engineer designs ventilation systems, conduct study on sound and heat and will select the best materials to create a comfortable surrounding in the building. And many other mechanical systems in that perticular project.

Author: Mundhir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 21:39

What does CADD or CAD stand for in computer application?

CADD stands for Computer Aided Drafting and Design. It came to be short formed to CAD by eliminating the drafting word. Probably due to the fact that drafting is part of the process of designing.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 21:31

What computer software do architects require?

An architecture may use one of these software, or combine two together for better presentation visual result:

1. Autocad [ From Autodesk - 2d Design ] Works on both Windows and Mac Operating Systems.
2. Revit [ From Autodesk - 3d Design ] Works only on Windows Operating System
3. 3d MAX [ From Autodesk - 3d Design ] Works only on Windows Operating System
4. Archicad [ From Graphisoft - 2d / 3d Design ] Works for both Windows and Mac Operating System.

CAD softwares for architecture are many, they depend on the region or country you live in of which architects are accustomed to. The most known and used softwares in the world are from Autodesk company which develops CAD softwares.
Autodesk has two softwares for architects mainly, Autocad and 3dsmax.

Architects use autocad for 2d design. I.e floor plans, elevations, sections and detail drawings for construction purposes. The second software is 3dsmax for 3d modelling and rendering for presentation purposes.

Another perpheral software from autodesk less used then the above ones is Revit architecture.
Other parts of the world use Archicad from Graphisoft company. Archicad incorporated both 2d and 3d design in its program; therefore the architect can develop the whole project in one program. Archicad has a built-in rendering engine though most professional use other rendering softwares to get realistic photo rendered images. Artlantis is the most used rendering software with archicad.

Graphisoft also develops a collaboration software called BIM which stands for building information modelling. Which enables architects in large firms for live sharing of their project files.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:30

What is a Bungalow?

Bungalow is a type of a residential building that is limited to a single story. It can have 1 to 5 bedrooms, and has no staircase for accessing the upper floors or terraces.

source: www.telegraph.co.uk/

A typical design for a bungalow would have:
1. A seperate or shared sitting and dining room
2. kitchen
3. A toilet for guests or outsiders
4. Sets of room of which one may be dedicated for a guest.
Note : The rooms might share restroom and bathrooms or may be self contained.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:35

What are the different categories of buildings?

Buildings can be categorised as :-

1. Residential
2. Commercial
3. Industrial
4. Educational
5. Governmental
6. Military and many others

Depending on the purpose of the building.

Residential buildings are single dwellings privately owned or multi dwellings such as apartments or flats.
For private dwelling we have bungalows and maisonettes.
Multi dwellings are normally on multi story and high rise buildings.
Commercial buildings can be offices, retail centres, recreation or health centres....etc.
Industrial buildings are factories, workshops, warehouses, plants and other facilities.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:56

What are the area of specialization in Architecture?

Architecture is a wide field on its on. There are many areas to specialize. Among those are the following:

1. Architectural Engineering
2. Interior Architecture
3. Landscape Architecture.
4. Urban design.
5. Sustainable Architecture or Environmental design.
6. Architectural history.
7. Real estate management.
8. Construction management.

The above are some of the areas but many of these areas have broaden to stand as a course of its on.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:57

What is Architecture?

Architecture can mean many things. It can mean a building or any physical structure. It can also mean the study of the science and art of creating buildings.
Here is a short video explaining about Architecture:


Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:58

Civil Engineer & Architecture » Civil Engineer

Who is a Geotechnical engineer?

Geotechnical Engineer is a civil engineer who specialized in:-

Earthworks and deal with subjects such as foundations, earth movements which corelates with infrustructure, sesmic activities...etc.

In other words whenever there is a need to design elements of a structure which is subjected to earth behavior. A Geotechnical Engineer is the person to consult.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 16:43

Who is a Water Engineer?

Water Engineering is another specialization area in Civil engineering. In urban areas all the water resources are controlled by the water engineer.

He designs and develops sewage systems, water supplies, water catchment and reservation....etc.

Major structures are constructed under his supervision.

Among the structures he designs are: dames, water towers, cesspool, city sewer tunnels and drainage piping systems....etc.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 16:46

Who is a highway engineer?

High way Engineering involve development of roads and other transportation tracks and routes. The highway engineer is responsible in designing and analyzing the strength of materials and safety of the route which will be able to withstand all the traffic movement of the vehicles and other vessels passing through that route. 

Highway engineer designs roads, bridges, tunnels and railways.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:00

What does infrastructure means?

Infrastructure is any physical facility which facilitates movement and settlement of people. 

Buildings can be considered as infrastructure or part of. But in Civil engineering terms it mean the facilities which surrounds the buildings. I.e. Roads, tunnels, bridges, railways...etc.

Author: Anonymous
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:00

Who is a Structural Engineer?

Structural Engineering is a specialization in Civil Engineering. A Structural Engineer oftenly works or collaborates with the Architect to ensure that the structures which the Architect designs is safe. His responsibility is to undergo an extensive calculations to analyze certain elements in the structure whether it's made of concrete or steel and reinforce them by selecting the right materials which can withstand the applied loadings on the structural element.

After the analysis, the structural engineer would draft and produce detailed drawings to indicate the types of reinforcement and to demonstrate how they will be constructed on site.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:03

What are the areas of specialization in Civil Engineering?

Civil Engineering is a broad field. Below are some of the specialization areas:

  1. Roads and Highway Engineering.
  2. Earth and Geodetic Engineering.
  3. Structural Engineering.
  4. Water Engineering.
  5. Environmental Engineering.
  6. ...Etc.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:05

Information Technology » Software » Operating System » Microsoft Windows

What is the difference between 32-bit (x86) and 64-bit (x64) versions of Windows?

The terms 32-bit (x86) and 64-bit (x64)  refer to the way a computer's processor (also called a CPU), handles information. The 64-bit version of Windows handles large amounts of information from random access memory (RAM) & more effectively compared to 32-bit system.

Most 32-bit applications can work on 64-bit (but with drivers and some Anti viruses, the case is different). The 32-bit will fit 32-bit Operating System and the 64-bit System.

Many Programs are 32-bit version, But if your Computer has more then 4GB of RAM, it is better to choose 64-bit version of Windows, to handle more application at the same time and switching between them more frequently. 

If you wish to install Windows 64-bit version, your computer must have a 64-bit-capable processor.

Luckly, since the lauch of i3, i5, i7 CPUs all are 64-bit structure processors.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:39

How to capture your screen in Windows 10, without any software?

Changing your product key for Windows 7 requires some command line to be written on Command Prompt.

1 - Press  on the start menu, Choose All Programs.

2 - Go to Accessories then choose Command Prompt.

3- At the Command Prompt with the black screen type this line:

"slmgr.vbs -ipk 'Your New Product Key' "

for example:


and press Enter.

This line will change the product key of your Machine, it may take a while and then a new window will appear saying that your product key has been changes successfully.

After changing your product key, you need to activate your license.

4 - at the same Command Prompt window, type the command line mentioned on step 5.

"slmgr.vbs -ato"

P.S. if the entered product key is correct, a new window will appear saying " Your Windows Version is genuine".

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:32

How to enable the (Hidden) Administrator Account on Windows 7 or Vista?

Many people familiar with prior versions of Windows are curious what happened to the built-in Administrator account that was always created by default. Does this account still exist, and how can you access it?

The account is created in Windows 7 or Vista, but since it’s not enabled you can’t use it. If you are troubleshooting something that needs to run as administrator, you can enable it with a simple command.

Note: You really shouldn’t use this account for anything other than troubleshooting. In fact, you probably shouldn’t use it at all.

Enable Built-in Administrator Account

First you’ll need to open a command prompt in administrator mode by right-clicking and choosing “Run as administrator” (or use the Ctrl+Shift+Enter shortcut from the search box)

Run as administrator

Now type the following command:

    net user administrator /active:yes

Command windows

You should see a message that the command completed successfully.
Log out, and you’ll now see the Administrator account as a choice.
(Note that the screenshots are from Vista, but this works on Windows 7)

login selection

You’ll note that there’s no password for this account, so if you want to leave it enabled you should change the password.

Disable Built-in Administrator Account

Make sure you are logged on as your regular user account, and then open an administrator mode command prompt as above. Type the following command:

    net user administrator /active:no

disable account

The administrator account will now be disabled, and shouldn’t show up on the login screen anymore.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 17:42

What causes Error 0x80072f8f while activating windows?

While updating & activating windows 7 this error code "0x80072f8f" message can appear due to some reasons:

1. You shouldVerify that your Internet connection is working.

2. Check system time and date to be correct. some times, date changes to an old date due to a battery problem.

3. Verify that your proxy settings are correct, to reach the correct Microsoft server.

If neither of these option succeed then you can used another method to activate your windows

Start Activating Windows 7 using the automated telephone system.

1 - Click Start , and choose Computer

2 - Click System properties on the above toolbar, you will see below "Click here to activate Windows now" in the Windows activation section, sometimes it requires an administration confirmation, if it does please confirm.

3 - Choose "Show me other ways to Activate". 

4 - Click Use the automated phone system, and then follow the instructions that are provided.

After trying these methods, my windows was activated. wish it helps you too.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 18:06

How to uninstall internet explorer 9 in windows 7?

Uninstalling Internet Explorer 9,
Two Methods to uninstall internet explorer 9.
After Updating windows, internet explorer 9 is installed automatically with the other updates.
Some of the users can't use internet explorer 9, because it doesn't suite with their application, therefore I am writing this article to explain how to return back to the old one or uninstall the new one.
First Method.
1, From the start menu  choose Control Panel.
2. Control Panel will open and we can select .

3. Program and Features will open, and at the left side you shall see "View Installed updates".
click on View Installed updates, and a big menu at the right will appear, contains all updates for all software.
4. Select Windows internet explorer 9, and above that menu you will see the word "Uninstall", click on it.
5. A confirmation window will appear  Select yes and the update will be removed.


Second Method.
Some times the normal method won't work and uninstall the internet explorer 9, because it will ask you to remove other updates before this.
This code will make it possible to remove the update.
Just open the RUN windows from the start menu, and type in the text field this code.

FORFILES /P %WINDIR%\servicing\Packages /M Microsoft-Windows-InternetExplorer-*9.*.mum /c "cmd /c echo Uninstalling package @fname && start /w pkgmgr /up:@fname /norestart"

A Dos windows will appear, and remove the updates until it get rid of the internet explorer 9.
Wish this article assist you with your problem.

Author: Mahir El Haj
Last update: 2020-04-06 18:19

How to capture your screen in Windows 10, without any software?

This entry is in revision and can not be displayed.

Author: omar
Last update: 2020-04-07 21:24

Information Technology » Software » Operating System » Mac OS

How to verify a checksum (SHA-1 digest) in Mac OS X using terminal?


Learn how to verify a SHA-1 digest (also known as a checksum). Important: Verifying the SHA-1 of a software update is optional; it is provided on Apple software updates for those individuals who want to verify the authenticity of an update.
Products Affected

Mac OS X 10.0, Mac OS X 10.3, Mac OS X 10.2, Mac OS X 10.1, Mac OS X 10.4, Mac OS X 10.6, Mac OS X 10.5, Product Security

Note: For updates delivered by Automatic Software Update, SHA-1 digest verification is performed automatically for you.

To verify a manually-downloaded software update from Apple Downloads, which contains a SHA-1 digest, perform the following steps:

    1. Open Terminal (located in /Applications/Utilities).

    2. Type the following at the Terminal prompt:

    openssl sha1 [full path to file]


    openssl sha1 /Users/myaccount/Documents/1024SecUpd2003-03-03.dmg

    The SHA-1 digest is displayed as: SHA1 (full path to the file)= [checksum amount]


SHA1(/Users/myaccount/Documents/1024SecUpd2003-03-03.dmg) =2eb722f340d4e57aa79bb5422b94d556888cbf38

Additional Information

About SHA-1

SHA-1 is essentially a secure checksum for a data file. The SHA-1 checksum is based on a cryptographic standard. For a given file, SHA-1 produces a 160 bit encrypted output known as a "message digest." It is highly improbable that a modified data set would produce the same message digest. If a file is changed during transit, its message digest also changes.

SHA-1 and Apple Downloads

You can download manually-installable updates from Apple Downloads. Apple uses SHA-1 digests on certain Apple Downloads so you can verify (with a high degree of probability) that the software you downloaded is the same software you intended to download (see Related documents below). When the SHA-1 digest for the file you downloaded matches the digest for the file as displayed on Apple Downloads, you can be sure that the file is authentic.

Author: Anonymous
Last update: 2020-04-06 16:52